## How To Choose The Right Power Cord Based On Its Function And Capacity

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On: 05 Jan, 2021

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Category: Circuit

How To Choose The Right Power Cord Based On Its Function And Capacity

Hello guys, meet again with me, the discussion this time is still about electricity. The electrical system cannot be separated from cables and wiring, so do you think th...

How To Choose The Right Power Cord Based On Its Function And Capacity

Hello guys, meet again with me, the discussion this time is still about electricity. The electrical system cannot be separated from cables and wiring, so do you think the cables in the electrical installation wiring are the same? or just one type of cable for everything?

There are many types of cables in the general language of cables that are special for outdoors, indoors and some are even special in soil or water.

1) type of cable based on the voltage:

based on the amount of voltage, the power cable is divided into 3 groups, among them:

• Low Voltage Power Cables

• Medium Voltage Electrical Cables

• High Voltage Power Cables

And we can also see that some of the power cables have a wrapper, and some have no wrap.

In general, the form of an electrical cable that has a wrapper is divided into two parts, namely the isolator and the conductor. What is meant by insulators and conductors? Here's the explanation:

Insulator

The insulator is a part of the cable covering that does not conduct electricity. The insulator is generally made of thermoplastic material. This material is intended to protect the cable from being affected by the surrounding factors.

This wrapper also protects the current so that there is no short circuit or commonly called a short circuit.

Conductor

The conductor is the part of the cable that functions to conduct electricity. These conductors are usually made of copper or aluminum, their current-carrying capacity varies according to the needs and capacity required.

This value is often called the Current Conducting Capacity (KHA).

2) Types of cables for installation

cables are designed to suit their respective functions. cables for installation purposes will not be suitable for use for electronic purposes, and vice versa. Therefore, before going further, you should first identify the types of installation cables

The power cable is divided into:

NYM cable

NYY cable

HIS cable

NYAF cable

NYYHY cable

NYMHY cable

NYMHYO cable

BC cable

ACSR cable

NYRGBY / NYFGBF / NYBY cable

Home electrical installation wiring recommendations

And for home electrical installation cables, there are two best cables that can be used, namely: NYA and NYM.

both are single-core, non-fiber cable types

The cable is single-core, so it's stronger and stiffer. but the disadvantage is that we need pipes to protect this cable

while NYM is a bundle of HIS cables wrapped up again. So it's stronger, but you have to know the amount of the NYM cable first so you don't buy the wrong one and install the wrong installation.

Now this time we will try to determine the size of the cable cross-section according to what we need, because if it does not match the capacity of the installation it will result in two things

If the cross-sectional area of the cable is too high, it will cause the cable to heat up and at worst, burn.

If the cable is too large, the installation costs will be even more expensive

Therefore we need the right cable for use

How to?

How to determine the right cable cross-section size

In wiring we must not choose cables carelessly, we must know the amount of power or watts available and from there we can know how much the cable cross section is safe to use, before that you must first know what the size of the cable is and its current conductive strength. as in the table below.

Maximum cable cross-sectional area

0.75 mm² 12 Ampere

1 mm² 15 Ampere

1.5 mm² 18 Ampere

2.5 mm² 26 amperes

4 mm² 34 Ampere

6 mm² 44 Ampare

10 mm² 61 Ampere

16 mm² 82 Ampere

25 mm² 108 Ampere

35 mm² 135 Ampere

50 mm² 168 Ampere

Now, from the table above, you can find out what area of the cable and how much current capacity.

As an example :

Example:

my friend is planning to install a 950 VA KWH meter. Then the maximum power for your house is 950 watts, if more MCB on the KWH meter will cut off the current.

Formula :

I = P / V

I = Current (amperes)

P = Power (watts)

V = voltage (Volt)

known is Power = 950 watts

voltage = 220 V (standard voltage in Indonesia)

I = P / V

I = 950/220

I = 4.31818

So the maximum electric current for your home is 4,31818 Ampere

Then the cable cross-sectional area required is a minimum of 0.75 mm²

Tips for choosing the appropriate installation cable

choosing the right electrical installation cable, there are stages, and the following is the list:

you need to know what the VA capacity of your home electricity is 450 VA, 900 VA and so on.

If the VA is already known, then you can begin to determine the size of the cable to be used

Adjust the budget. Why don't we just use big cables to make it safer? because the bigger the cable the more expensive the price, so you should use a cable that matches the electrical power capacity in your home.

If the size of the cable is known, it would be nice if you give it more, for example 1.5mm2 is enough, we can give 2.5mm2. Why? So that the resistance of the cable is more durable and does not heat easily

Determine the type of cable according to your place and environment. For example, are you planning to install inside the wall or outside the wall, float or spread out, in the ground or in the air and so on.

I have summarized the electrical installation cable based on VA:

1) 450 VA capacity

450 VA is equivalent to 2 amperes. With this value, a 1.5mm2 cable is sufficient because the cable capacity is 18 Ampere

2) 900 VA capacity

900 VA capacity can also use a 1.5mm2 cable because in my opinion this size is enough.

3) 1300 VA capacity

Actually for a capacity of 1300 VA which is equivalent to 6A, a cable measuring 1.5mm2 is enough, it's just that for the sake of security and durability it would be better if we use a 2.5mm2 cable so that the cable is more durable

although the cable price is definitely more expensive, for a house with a capacity of 1300 VA, it is certain that the home owner can afford a cable with a cross-sectional area of 2.5m2.

4) 2200 VA capacity

For a capacity of 2200VA it is better to use a 2.5mm2 cable because if you use a 1.5mm2 cable you are worried that it will be hot.

or more complete, see the table above as a standard from PLN.

Another calculation that can be used as a reference is to calculate the cable size

For now we try to take an example of the use of an electrical equipment component.

In a house with a standard voltage of 220V there are 2 ACs with different types of PK

- AC one type 1 PK = 400 watts and 350 meters away from the split connection

- Two AC type 3 PK = 600 watts is 215 meters away,

- And also a TV in the living room with a wattage of 100 watts is 710 meters away,

in this case the home owner provides a copper type cable and wants the voltage loss to be no more than 5volt, then what is the diameter of the wire that is suitable for each of the equipment? In this calculation, we will use the following formula:

q = cable cross-sectional area in mm2

L = distance in meters

N = power in watts

y = conductivity (copper = 56, aluminum 32.7, iron = 7)

ev = the desired voltage loss

E = voltage in volts

If we already know the formula, let's calculate one by one

Is known :

Name of goods

Watt

Distance

Loss voltage

Type of Conductor

AC One

1 PK (400watt)

350 m

5%

Copper

AC Two

3 PK (600watt)

215 m

5%

Copper

TV

100 watts

710 m

5%

Copper

Answer:

AC 1:

q = (L. N): (y. ev. E)

q = (350.400): (56.5.220)

q = (140,000): (61,600)

q = 2.27

Then the cable size needed by AC one is 2.27 mm2,

So from this value which cable size is closest? Let's look at the CRC table above, yes, the approximate sizes are 2.5mm2 and 4mm2,

Which of the two measures is good for us to use? we just take the size 4mm2 with rounding up because if we take the size 2.5mm2 it can still be used, it's just that we are worried that the size is too right, if there is an increase in tension the cable will heat up easily

AC 2:

q = (L. N): (y. ev. E)

q = (600. 215): (56. 5. 220)

q = (129,000): (61,600)

q = 2.09

Then the cable size needed by AC two is 2.09 mm2, so from this value which cable size is closest? We'll just use the 2.5mm2 size. Are you asking,

why the value of this cable is smaller even though the PK is large?

You need to remember, friend, the distance in the installation of the circuit affects the amperage, such as the water hose the farther it needs heavy water pressure so that it can get to the end as well as the cross-sectional area of the cable, the farther the distance the circuit the greater the current needed.

And we can see the difference in the distance between these two ac, where ac 2 is closer than ac one.

TV:

q = (L. N): (y. ev. E)

q = (710. 100): (56. 5. 220)

q = (71,000): (61,600)

q = 1.15

and for TV we take the size of the cable with a diameter of 1.5mm2 because I think this is strong enough to deliver an electric current to the TV.

So from the calculations above, we can know what sizes are suitable for each load.

So, those are just 3 examples, the rest, you can try to calculate yourself, and adjust it to the mains voltage and make sure the total load is also in accordance with the electrical capacity of your home or, you can add power if you feel the voltage in your home is less.

PLN provides quite a lot of power capacity for household consumers, such as:

450 VA = 2A

900 VA = 4A

1300 VA = 6A

2200 VA = 10A

And there are many more capacities that PLN offers but the bigger the capacity the higher the bill costs

Some Tips for Installing Electrical Installations to be safe

1) Use Protection Whatever the work is, the current must be wearing protective equipment because work accidents can happen at any time, if in the case of electrical cable installation the protective equipment needed is such as:

rubber gloves

rubber sandals,

and toolkits or good electrical equipment equipped with insulators.

2) Check Current or Voltage If you are going to start installing an electrical installation, make sure the electrical equipment has been disconnected from the power source, this is needed when you are going to start installing the line cable you are working on, it is completely safe.

3) Recognize the equipment that will be repaired, do not just repair electrical equipment, make sure you know how the circuit or wiring works, you are worried that if you just repair it without knowing how to work and wiring, it could be short or short.

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