How Steam Turbine is works

How Steam Turbine is works

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How Steam Turbine is works

The Renkine cycle once created was immediately accepted as the standard for power generation using steam. The real Renkine cycle used in power generation installations is much more complex than the original simpl...

How Steam Turbine is works

The Renkine cycle once created was immediately accepted as the standard for power generation using steam. The real Renkine cycle used in power generation installations is much more complex than the original simple ideal renkine cycle. This cycle is the cycle most widely used for electric power generation today. Since the Rankine cycle is a liquid vapor cycle, it is best represented by the P-v and T-s diagrams with lines showing saturated vapor and saturated liquid. The working fluid is water (H2O).

how steam turbine is works 1

Steam Turbine is one of the basic components in a steam power plant. Where the main components of the system are: boiler, condenser, boiler water pump, and the turbine itself. Steam, which functions as a working fluid, is produced by the steam valve, which is a device that converts water into steam.

how steam turbine is works 2

The ideal cycle that occurs in the turbine is the Renkine cycle; Water in cycle 1 is pumped, the condition is isentropic s1 = s2 enters the boiler with the same pressure as the pressure in the condenser but the boiler absorbs heat while the condenser releases heat, then from the boiler it enters the turbine with super hot conditions h3 = h4 and the output of the turbine is shaped saturated steam where the mass flow rate entering the turbine is equal to the mass flow rate out of the turbine, this can be illustrated using a diagram
The following T-s:

how steam turbine is works 3

According to the first law of thermodynamics, the work produced by a cycle process is equal to the amount of heat transfer in the working fluid during the cycle process. So for the Cycle process
1 - 2 - 2 '- 3 - 3' - 4 - 1
With the formula:

how steam turbine is works 4

In fact, the Steam Turbine system cycle deviates from the Ideal Cycle (Rankine Cycle) due to the following factors:
1. Losses in pipes or working fluid lines, for example friction losses and heat losses to the surrounding atmosphere.
2. Pressure losses in steam boilers
3. Energy losses in the turbine due to friction on the working fluid and parts of the turbine.

Steam Turbine Working Principle

In brief, the working principle of the steam turbine is as follows:
The steam enters the turbine through the nozzle. In the nozzle the heat energy from the steam is converted into kinetic energy and the steam develops.


The vapor pressure when it exits the nozzle is smaller than when it enters the nozzle, but on the other hand, the velocity of the vapor exiting the nozzle is greater than when it enters the nozzle.


The steam that radiates out of the nozzle is directed to the turbine blades which are curved and mounted around the turbine wheel. The steam that flows through the gaps between the turbine blades is deflected to follow the curve of the turbine blades. This change in steam velocity creates a force that pushes and then rotates the turbine wheels and shafts.


If the steam still has speed when leaving the turbine blades, it means that only a part of the kinetic energy of the steam is taken by the running turbine blades. In order to use the remaining kinetic energy when leaving the turbine blades, more than one row of motion blades is installed in the turbine. Before entering the second row of motion blades. So between the first row and the second row of motion blades, one row of fixed blades (guide blade) is installed which is useful for changing the direction of the steam speed, so that steam can enter the second row of motion blades in the right direction.


The speed of the vapor when leaving the last moving blade must be made as small as possible, so that the available kinetic energy can be utilized as much as possible. Thus the efficiency of the turbine is higher because the energy loss is relatively small

 

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