Gas Turbine System Working Principle

Gas Turbine System Working Principle

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Gas Turbine System Working Principle

A gas turbine is a machine that uses gas as a fluid to rotate a turbine by internal or internal combustion. In a gas turbine, the kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy through compressed ai...

Gas Turbine System Working Principle

A gas turbine is a machine that uses gas as a fluid to rotate a turbine by internal or internal combustion. In a gas turbine, the kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy through compressed air which will rotate the turbine wheels to produce power. The simplest gas turbine system consists of three components, namely a compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine.

gas turbine system working principle

The Working Principle of the Gas Turbine System (Gas-Turbine Engine)

Air enters the compressor through the air inlet (inlet). The compressor functions to suck and increase the air pressure, so that the air temperature also increases. Then this compressed air enters the combustion chamber. In the combustion chamber, the combustion process is carried out by mixing compressed air and fuel. The combustion process takes place under constant pressure so that it can be said that the combustion chamber is only for increasing the temperature. The combustion gas is flowed to the gas turbine through a nozzle which functions to direct the flow to the turbine blades. The power generated by the gas turbine is used to turn the compressor itself and rotate other loads such as electric generators, etc. After passing through this turbine, the gas will be discharged out through the exhaust.
In general, the processes that occur in a gas turbine system are as follows:

Compression (compression) of air in the intake and compressed
Combustion of fuel is mixed into the combustion chamber with air and then combusted.
The expansion of the combustion gases expands and flows outward through the nozzle.
The exhaust gas from combustion is released through the exhaust channel.


In fact, no process is always ideal, there are still losses that can reduce the power generated by the gas turbine and result in decreased performance of the gas turbine itself. These losses can occur in all three components of the gas turbine system. The causes of the loss include:
1. The presence of fluid friction which causes pressure losses in the combustion chamber.
2.There is excessive working time in the compression process which causes friction between the turbine bearings and the wind.
3. Changes in the Cp value of the working fluid due to changes in temperature and changes in the chemical composition of the working fluid.
4. There is mechanical loss.

Gas Turbine Classification
Gas turbines can be distinguished by their cycle, shaft construction and others. According to the cycle, a gas turbine consists of:

Closed cycle gas turbine (Close cycle)
Open cycle gas turbine


The difference between these two types is based on the working fluid cycle. In an open cycle gas turbine, the working fluid at the end of the expansion is immediately discharged into the atmospheric air, while for the closed cycle, the working fluid expansion is cooled down to return to the initial process.
In the gas turbine industry, it is generally classified into two types, namely:

Single Shaft Gas Turbine

This type of turbine is used to drive an electric generator that produces electrical energy for industrial processes.

Double Shaft Gas Turbine (Double Shaft)


This type of turbine is a gas turbine consisting of a high-pressure turbine and a low-pressure turbine, where the gas turbine is used to drive changing loads such as a compressor in a process unit. Gas Turbine Cycles

The three commonly known gas turbine cycles are:
The Ericson Cycle
It is a reversible heat engine cycle consisting of two reversible isothermic processes and two reversible isobaric processes. The heat transfer process in the isobaric process takes place in the internal cycle component (regenerator), where the thermal efficiency is: hth = 1 - T1 / Th, where T1 = exhaust temperature and Th = hot temperature.
Stirling Cycle
It is a reversible heat engine cycle, which consists of two isothermal reversible processes with a fixed volume (isochoric). The thermal efficiency is the same as the thermal efficiency in the Ericson cycle.
The Brayton Cycle
This cycle is the ideal thermodynamic power cycle for gas turbines, so that this cycle is currently very popularly used by turbine engine makers or manufacturers in analysis for performance upgrading. The Brayton cycle consists of an isentropic compression process that ends with a process of releasing heat at constant pressure. In the Bryton cycle each process state can be analyzed as follows

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